Frosted Candy by Sylvain Homo for Sport & Street Magazine
Models: Austria Alcantara & Genesis Vallejo
Frosted Candy by Sylvain Homo for Sport & Street Magazine
Models: Austria Alcantara & Genesis Vallejo
Important things from Igbohistory Instagram. European colonialism has, and still continues to dismantle the myriad of sophisticated social constructs upheld by so many African ethnicities, by presenting Africa as a unit by choosing to ignore the huge ocean of differences between ethnic groups, let alone countries.
Interesting fact: Many African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and states were referred to as ‘countries’ before the rise of colonial powers throughout Africa. They were okay as ‘countries’ when slaves and other goods were being traded. You’ll hear of the Ebo country, Benin Country, Whydah Country and so on when reading pre-1850 writing. If you label a kingdom or a state a ‘tribe’ this those what is described above but also implies there was no major or important political organisation. ‘Tribe’ made/makes indigenous African states and ethnic affiliations sound petty and unimportant. Imagine calling the Edo or Songhai people a tribe when their empires have wielded more power than most of the world ever has? But why would you call them countries when you’re trying to impose your own country on them?
every full body shot of Hazel from “Seconds” in her adorable outfits
Kater of all this happiness
Andini of Adventures of an Angophile
bianca-vousaime said: Hi, I was wondering if you could recommend any books exploring the legacies of colonialism written by a Pinoy?
To be honest I haven’t come across many books talking about colonialism in the Philippines that is written by a Filipin@ and not someone who is a white American.
There most likely are several but I haven’t heard of them. The only books I can think of at the top of my head is Brown Skin, White Minds: Filipino -/ American Postcolonial Psychology by E.J.R. David which has some chapters dedicated to talking about the Spanish and American colonization and colonial mentality in general, and The Forbidden Book: The Philippine-American War in Political Cartoons by Abe Ignacio, Enrique de la Cruz, Jorge Emmanuel.
If anyone else knows any good books to recommend feel free to comment.
Actually if anyone knows any good books in general about Filipin@ culture, history, & colonization, feel free to message me some suggestions. I plan to make a post as a reference with a list of books that fellow Filipin@’s in the diaspora can read up on as I know many are eager to read books written by and for Filipin@’s on those types of topics, not only as a source of decolonization but also on learning about ourselves as a people.
Here’s a few books that I mentioned in my Filipino literature tag.
One that I would highly recommend is E. San Juan Jr. (See: Carlos Bulosan, Filipino Writer-Activist: Between a Time of Terror and the Time of Revolution and his Academia.edu profile).
- History of the Philippines: From Indios Bravos to Filipinos by Luis Francia
- Philippine Society and Revolution by Amado Guerrero
- The Decolonized Eye: Filipino American Art and Performance by Sarita Echavez See
- Toward Filipino Self-Determination: Beyond Transnational Globalization by E. San Juan Jr.
- Suspended Apocalypse: White Supremacy, Genocide, and the Filipino Condition by Dylan Rodríguez
- Transpacific Femininities: The Making of the Modern Filipina by Denise Cruz
- Pin@y Educational Partnerships Volume I and Volume II by Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales
- Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice by Kevin Nadal
- Pinay Power: Peminist Critical Theory by Melinda de Jesus [Note: Will be reprinted next year.]
- On Becoming Filipino: Selected Writings of Carlos Bulosan by E. San Juan Jr.
- Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of An Imperial Dream 1899-1999 by Angel Velasco Shaw and Luis H. Francia
- Back from the Crocodile’s Belly: Philippine Babaylan Studies and the Struggle for Indigenous Memory by Lily Mendoza and Leny Mendoza Strobel
- Coming Full Circle: The Process of Decolonization Among Post-1965 Filipino Americans by Leny Mendoza Strobel
On pinoy-culture’s inquiry I would recommend checking out
Barbara Jane Reyes posts from her blog
some more off the top of my head:
- creating masculinity in los angeles’s little manila: working-class filipinos and popular culture in the united states by linda espana-maram
- the day the dancers stayed: performing in the filipino/american diaspora by theodore gonzalves
- american tropics: articulating filipino america by allan isaac
- beyond the nation: diasporic filipino literature and queer reading by martin joseph ponce
- white love and other events in filipino history by vicente rafael
- migrants for export: how the philippine state brokers labor to the world by robyn rodriguez
- fantasy-production: sexual economies and other philippine consequences for the new world order by neferti tadiar
- things fall away: philippine historical experience and the makings of globalization by neferti tadiar
- positively no filipinos allowed: building communities and discourse ed. by antonio tiongson, ricardo gutierrez, and edgardo gutierrez
- america’s experts: race and the fictions of sociology by cynthia tolentino
i would also direct you to the amazing digital project, centerforartandthought!
Oh this list is wonderful. For those of you interested in reading books written by fellow Filipin@s for fellow Filipin@s here is a good list for you to browse throug and add to your library.
Asian Americans individually suffer from victimization similar to other races by both the majority and minority races. The most significant case for this community is the death of Vincent Chen. This case illustrates the “systematic devaluating” of Asian Americans to a “real” American” (Asian Nation, 2012). In June of 1982, Chen was brutally murdered with a baseball bat by two white men outside a bar the night before his wedding day (Kang, 1993; Wu, 2010). The most compelling part about this case is how his identity was mistaken twice for being Asian and assumed to have been Japanese even though he was of Chinese descent (Kang, 1993; Wu, 2010). Also, the legal action taken against these two suspects, Ronald Ebens and Michael Nitz, were relatively minor for this racially motivated crime. The prosecutors for this case did not show up in court to defend the unjustifiable death of Chen and each offender received $3,000 fine and three years of probation (Kang, 1993; Wu, 2010). There are several other cases in the following years revealing the degree of crimes motivated against Asians, especially in circumstances where a perpetrator justifies their actions based on the assumption that “you [Asians] all look alike” (Wu, 2010, p. 20).
There are recent cases that have illustrated the victimization of Asian Americans throughout the United States. In New York, three black teenagers were charged with the robbery of Jin Ton Yuan in an elevator with a pistol at his head in May 2009 (Chen, 2009). Later in June, two of the same teenagers, Cory Azore and Chris Levy, sought out an Asian to steal money. They dragged, choked, and beat to death David Kao in the backseat of his car and dumped his body (Ibid.). In both cases police confirmed they were targeted for their race, but the prosecutor did not want to charge them for a hate crime (Ibid.). In California, the anti-Asian sentiments are still present in the bay area. San Francisco has been having problems with violent offenses in particularly with elderly Asian immigrants (Yu, 2010). In 2010, two young adult black males brutally beat 59-year old Yu and his 27 year-old son while shopping in Oakland. The older Yu died from the beating and the 27 year-old suffered severe injuries. In this case, the prosecutor declined to file hate crime charges against them (KTVU, 2010; Yu, 2010). Asian American adults are not the only ones facing harassment and assault; their children are suffering too. In the Philadelphia school system, Asian American students are subject to name-calling and verbal threats. It is so common that the “culture of violence against Asian immigrants” (Yu, 2010, p. 1) is an acceptable “part of life.”
This act changed the reporting methods of crimes by defining the difference between hate crimes and other crimes. According to National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), there were approximately 12,135,210 Asians and Pacific Islanders that are twelve years old and older in 2010 (Truman, 2011). The 2010 Uniform Crime Report states Asian and Pacific Islanders comprised of 5.1% of all known racial biased hate crimes committed (U.S. Department of Justice, 2011b). However, they are most likely to underreport crimes compared to other races (Chen, 2009; Kang, 1993). Christina Chen claimed the reasons why these crimes are underrepresented are because victims are not comfortable with reporting their experiences with officers who are not bilingual, they fear problems with their immigration status, mistrust with local police, and the disregard of hate crimes and civil rights protections (2009). The crime rate is also affected by how law enforcement officials measure them. They fail to record hate crimes by misidentifying the crime or not identifying it as a racially motivated crime (2009). A prime example is the classification of Asian women rape victims.
Asian women are subject to victimization because of their Asian descent. Their reputation as an Asian woman to be a sexual object of desire becomes a burden when they are purposely sought out for sex because of their race. Jaemin Kim, a female Korean American journalist, reported “… Asian women in particular remain vulnerable” (Kim, 2009). They are more prone to rape victims based on their race, but reporting it as a hate crime is difficult because police officials fail to recognize that it can be racially motivated. A secretary from an L.A. police department said, “rapes were ‘not a hate crime’” (Ibid, p. 3). This situation in itself should be considered a hate motivated sex crime because the serial rapist specifically sought out for Korean women, but police authorities ignored the possibility (Ibid.).
The entire Asian American community is affected. Erika Harrell claimed in her NCVS report that most anti-Asian crimes are done by strangers (Harrell, 2009). Interestingly, the offenders are predominantly African American in San Francisco. Similar to the non-Asian population, Asian males and youths between the ages of twelve through nineteen were more prone to victimization than females and those who are older (Yu, 2009). Also, Asian American children are more likely to be victimized by children from a different race than the older generation (Lawson & Henderson, 2009).
*teacher calls your name on the first day of school for attendance*